Bariatric surgery is an effective method applied to achieve long-term and permanent weight loss. Thanks to the procedure where patient selection is made according to certain criteria, it contributes to the improvement of diabetes, sleep apnoea, hypertension and many health problems caused by obesity.
What is Bariatric Surgery?
Bariatric surgery, which is one of the increasingly widespread methods today, is applied to eliminate health problems caused by excess weight in the patient and shortening life. It is not a procedure applied for cosmetic purposes. However, the patient should change his/her lifestyle and eating habits in order to eliminate the gains obtained due to the application.
When obesity surgery is mentioned, more than one method is mentioned. These methods basically aim to reduce the stomach capacity and therefore the amount of food taken by the patient and/or to shorten the intestinal surface where the food is absorbed or to provide both effects together. In this way, it may be possible to improve both obesity and many metabolic problems related to obesity.
How is Bariatric Surgery Performed?
Bariatric surgery is applied with different techniques according to the method preferred for the patient and the way each technique is applied is different. Regardless of the procedure, the techniques used are standardised. Although the technology used and the procedures applied are similar, there are some differences in approaches to close follow-up, physical activity and maintenance of eating discipline in the postoperative period.
What are Bariatric Surgery Methods?
Bariatric surgery can be applied with different methods depending on the current condition of the patient and the desired results.
Sleeve Gastrectomy (Gastric Sleeve)
In this method, in which the stomach is turned into a tube by surgical procedure, the stomach is cut longitudinally and a large part of it is removed. Thus, the amount of food and calorie intake that the person can consume at one time is restricted. Approximately 80% of the stomach is removed during sleeve gastrectomy surgery. The part of the stomach that is permanently removed outside the body also contains the part where ghrelin release, also called hunger hormone, occurs. Thus, there is a significant decrease in the appetite of patients after stomach reduction surgery.
In the procedure, which is performed endoscopically under mild anaesthesia, a balloon placed inside the stomach is inflated. Thus, the stomach is filled earlier and the feeling of satiety is achieved in a shorter time. Depending on the choice of gastric balloon, the balloon can remain in the stomach for 6 or 12 months.
Gastric Bypass Surgery
It is a surgical procedure in which a large part of the stomach is bypassed and sutured to the small intestine after a small volume stomach section is prepared. It is applied in order to reduce the volume of the stomach and to disable part of the intestines and to ensure that some of the food consumed is excreted without being absorbed.
Frequently Asked Questions
Who Can Have Bariatric Surgery?
- Those with a body mass index of 40 and above,
- Those with a body mass index of 30 and above and who have health problems caused by obesity such as heart disease, sleep apnoea, diabetes and high cholesterol,
- Failure to lose weight with regular diet and exercise,
- Obesity surgery can be applied to people who are aware of the postoperative requirements.
What Does Bariatric Treatment Mean?
Bariatric treatment is defined as effective and permanent surgical treatment applied in cases where effective results cannot be obtained only through diet and exercise in the treatment of obesity problem and health problems arising from weight become a serious threat.
Who Cannot Undergo Bariatric Surgery?
- Drug and/or alcohol addicts,
- People with untreated eating disorders,
- People with severe psychiatric problems,
- To those who are able to treat the disorders that lead to obesity,
- For patients with advanced cancer,
- Portal hypertension,
- Pregnant women,
- Obesity surgery is not applied to those who exhibit cognitive impairment after the surgical procedure in such a way that they will not change their lifestyle or follow the dietary rules.
What are the Complications of Bariatric Surgery?
The application of bariatric surgery, which provides the solution of many health problems associated with obesity, by surgeons who do not have sufficient experience and expertise may increase the risk of complications. Acute and chronic complications may be encountered after the surgical procedure. Possible complications may vary depending on the type of surgery performed. These complications include band slippage, gastric obstruction, complicated intragastric band ligation, stapler line leaks, post gastric sleeve stenosis, anastomotic leakage, complicated marginal ulcer, bleeding and small bowel obstruction.